Новости Archives – Страница 2 из 8 – Институт экономики

Дело науки — служить людям. – Толстой –

Наука – капитан, а практика – солдаты. – Леонардо да Винчи –

Пределы наук похожи на горизонт: чем ближе подходим к ним, тем дальше они отодвигаются. – Буаст –

Фантазировать важней, чем знать. – Альберт Эйнштейн –

Наука – это организованное знание. – Спенсер –

Свобода для науки то же, что воздух для живого существа. – Пуанкаре –

Поле исследований всех наук беспредельно. – Паскаль –

Систему наук нужно рассматривать как систему природы: все в ней бесконечно и все необходимо. – Кювье –

Научный план без рабочей гипотезы – это скелет без живого тела. – Гиршфельд –

Главный предмет изучения человечества – человек. – Гёте –

В науке все важно. – Гейне –

Книги должны быть результатом наук, а не наука – результатом книг. – Бэкон –

Ученый не тот, кто дает правильные ответы, а тот, кто задает истинные вопросы. – Клод Леви-Стросс –

Чем упорнее мы будем искать истину вне себя, тем больше будем отдаляться от нее. Чем больше мы сумеем понять то, чем мы являемся, тем сильнее истина утвердит нас в нас же самих. – Антонио Менегетти –

Прежде чем природе повелевать, надо ей подчиниться. – Бэкон –

Настоящий ученый не тот, кто больше освоил, а тот, кто больше понял. – Лейбниц –

Наука – знать, как действует сущее. Знать действие бытия. – Антонио Менегетти –

Наука – благодетельница человечества. – Бертело –

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Latvia economy briefing: The science and technology innovation mechanism of Latvia

Original publication available at the China-CEE Institute website

The aim of the Science and Technology Innovation Mechanism in Latvia is to provide a knowledge base for the transformation of the national economy to higher added value, which was reflected in the Guidelines for Science, Technology Development and Innovation (hereinafter – STI) for 2014-2020.

In the period of 2014-2020, the development of the STI policy was closely related to the development of the National Industrial Policy in relation to the establishment of the national innovation system for the structural transformation of the Latvian economy into higher added value. Furthermore, the tasks were to concentrate resources in the strongest scientific institutions and to align research with the priorities of Latvia’s smart specialization. During this period, the development of universities as centres of knowledge, technological development and innovation was started by integrating scientific institutes into universities and setting innovation-related goals. In the field of science policy management, the evaluation of research project applications in accordance with the standards of the European Union was introduced, and the basic principles of funding and strategic management of scientific institutions were based on performance.

Within the framework of the Latvian National Industrial Policy, innovation and increase of its capacity is one of the main pillars to improve the competitiveness of Latvia’s industrial sectors and increase productivity and export volumes. The guidelines set out four equally important elements for the development of the Latvian innovation system – knowledge capacity, innovation supply, innovation demand, transfer system.[1]

Currently, the work of institutions on the new document – the draft guidelines for the development of science and technology for 2021-2027 is underway.[2]  The document defines Latvian research and innovation as an integral part of the European and world common research area, therefore its development must be directed considering both national development priorities and international processes and global challenges. Comparing to the previous programming period, the new document focuses more on promoting research excellence and increasing the social and economic value of research. The low level of R&D investment remains a challenge to ensure the long-term development of excellent research and innovation. Both an increase in state budget funding for research and the amount of investment in the business sector would be needed.

The strategic overarching goal of the STI policy is to promote the development of a smart, technologically developed and innovative society in Latvia, three goals have been set to achieve it:

1) to develop research excellence and international cooperation;

2) increase innovation capacity and the social and economic value of knowledge and research;

3) to improve the efficiency of the management of the R&D system.

In order to develop research excellence and international cooperation and for Latvia to fully integrate into the European and world research area, it is necessary to create an environment that stimulates the development of talents and supports the formation of purposeful and motivated research human capital in the long run. Achieving the goal requires stable and sustainable scientific funding, and competent academic staff with extensive networks.

Public funding for science in Latvia is still insufficient. Investment in science still does not exceed 50-million-euro threshold. The funding of the science base is unchanged from 2017 to 2022 – slightly over 27 million euro. Funding for public research programs is declining sharply, and the budget plans to halve it (see Table 1).

Table 1. State funding in the budget program “Science” of the Ministry of Education and Science”[3]

 201720182019202020212022
Investment in science47 917 79751 046 32349 636 05449 947 56549 703 57650 937 391
Provision of scientific activity4 912 51812 296 78512 511 03313 120 46814 620 46816 120 468
Science base funding27 187 53229 484 15527 866 59027 786 68827 636 44427 636 444
National research programs8 880 9403 151 3963 745 7784 368 0412 874 0102 874 010
Ensuring the operation of the Latvian Science Council99 12899 36799 89499 89499 89499 894
Participation in EU research and technological development programs5 334 8974 708 5564 208 9713 368 6863 267 4833 001 298

The scientific excellence of the Latvian R&D system is insufficient for rapid smart growth, and this is directly related to low R&D investment, which in the 2014–2020 programming period ranged from 0.44 to 0.69% of GDP with a low share of private investment (National target for 2020 – 1.5% of GDP).

At present, the number of people employed in research in Latvia is still critically low (both in terms of the total number and the share in the total structure of the country’s workforce), reaching only ~ 50% of the EU average. The share of innovative small and medium-sized enterprises in Latvia is one of the lowest in the EU – 30.3% (EU average 49.1%). The structure of Latvian industry is mainly characterized by low-tech companies. Latvian companies have insufficiently developed intersectoral and intersectoral co-operation, especially co-operation with research institutions in Latvia and abroad, as well as a weak capacity for commercialization of research results. Knowledge-intensive services account for almost 50% of total service exports. The share of medium and high technology products in total exports is 34.7% (EU average – 56.7%).

R&D&I[4] development and investment, as well as the creation of new businesses, are hampered by existing market failures in the availability of finance for economic operators at all stages of development.

As academic and research staff form intellectual capital to develop the capacity of all sectors of the Latvian economy, Latvia is implementing measures that provide high-quality and internationally competitive academic and research career development opportunities, stimulate and provide opportunities for the involvement of bachelor’s and master’s students, doctoral students and young researchers in research work in scientific institutions, companies, public administration and public institutions, public organizations and promote mobility for the circulation of knowledge.

In order to strengthen scientific excellence and international cooperation, it is necessary to develop appropriate research, including digital infrastructure that promotes the quality of higher education and research. In order to improve international competitiveness and recognition, the involvement of Latvian researchers in strategically important cooperation networks and research consortia with other European and world countries should be promoted, including by using the opportunities provided by cooperation partners and the Latvian diaspora worldwide.

Excellence-oriented research infrastructure, funding and competent academic staff are prerequisites for the development of excellent and internationally competitive research, the creation and transfer of knowledge, as well as the provision of high-quality, research-based higher education and the training of highly qualified professionals.

Latvia still needs to develop digital competences and skills, as it limits the potential for innovation in companies, as well as hinders participation in lifelong learning and the participation of the unemployed in active employment measures. Latvians lack digital skills at all levels and the share of ICT specialists in the workforce is low. Only 43% of the Latvian population aged 16-74 have basic digital skills (58% in the EU as a whole), and ICT professionals make up a small part of the workforce (1.7% compared to 3.9% in the EU, while ICT professionals as a percentage of employed women) is only 0.5% compared to 1.4% in the EU). [5]

Conclusions

Therefore, the ability to add value from knowledge is directly linked to the competences and capacity of those working in research, the demand of the private and public sectors for research and the amount of funding allocated to research and innovation. In order to reap the long-term return on investment in research and technological development, targeted measures are needed to develop public and private sector research and innovation capacity, as well as cooperation, ensuring both the development of basic science and the digital transformation of R&D systems and open science culture. Furthermore, the transfer between research and the business environment, the public sector and society at large, at national, regional and international levels.

The development and availability of an open, secure and interoperable public data infrastructure for research and innovation, as well as the transformation of traditional economic sectors in the regions towards greater resource efficiency and productivity, the creation of higher value-added products and services, are also essential for an efficient knowledge and technology transfer system. As well as, technologically intensive, internationally competitive, incl. niche markets, the development of innovation. The value of science as a socially and economically important field of intellectual activity lies in the direct social, economic and measurable benefits of research, as well as the diverse knowledge and understanding of wider interconnections and processes. In order to increase the value of knowledge and research in society, it is essential to create public awareness of the research and knowledge creation process, as well as to provide wider opportunities for public involvement in scientific research activities, creation and use of research data, incl. within the framework of amateur science initiatives.

[1] https://innovation.lv/inovacija/inovacijas-politika-latvija/

[2] https://izm.gov.lv/lv/aktualitates/4188-aicina-iesaistities-zinatnes-tehnologijas-attistibas-un-inovacijas-pamatnostadnu-2021-2027-gadam-sabiedriskaja-apspriesana

[3] https://www.izm.gov.lv/lv/zinatne/zinatnes-finansejumshttps://titania.saeima.lv/LIVS13/saeimalivs13.nsf/webAll?SearchView&Query=([Title]=*par+valsts+bud%C5%BEetu+2020.gadam*)&SearchMax=0&SearchOrder=4https://titania.saeima.lv/LIVS13/saeimalivs13.nsf/webAll?SearchView&Query=([Title]=*par+valsts+bud%C5%BEetu+2019.gadam*)&SearchMax=0&SearchOrder=4

[4] R&D&I – Research and Develepment and Innovation

[5] Digital Economy and Society Index 2020

*This article has been made in cooperation with China-CEE institute and is the intellectual property of China-CEE institute

Latvia political briefing: Extraordinary elections to the Riga City Council, mitigating the consequences of the Covid-19 crisis and the new National Civil Defence Plan

Original publication available at the China-CEE Institute website

Introduction

Government of Latvia continues to work on mitigating the consequences of the Covid-19 crisis and has reduced certain restrictions. It shows that Latvia has been relatively successful in terms of dealing with Covid-19 crisis. However, the central political event has definitely been the extraordinary elections of the Riga City Council, which, unfortunately, had a record low public activity since 1997. The results of the Riga City Council show that the elections were convincingly won by “Development / For” / “Progressive”, and 7 out of 15 lists entered the City Council. Furthermore, in order to increase Latvia’s defence capacities, adaption of the new National Civil Defence Plan has been an important step towards strengthening civil protection.

Cabinet of Ministers: the involvement of every member of society is important in limiting the spread of COVID-19

The Cabinet of Ministers, based on the recommendations of epidemiologists, decided to slightly reduce certain Covid-19 restrictions, considering that the increase in the number of cases in Latvia is significantly smaller than in other European Union member states. As the incidence of COVID-19 increases, Estonia and Lithuania have raised the threshold for the incidence rate to which travellers do not have to comply with self-isolation – from 16 cases per 100,000 inhabitants to 25. Health Minister of Latvia previously rejected the idea of such a step in Latvia, and still maintains this view. At the same time, there will be close monitoring so that a decision can be taken quickly on the need to return to stricter restrictions if the situation gets worse. From 17 August, up to 1000 persons are allowed to gather indoors, thus replacing the current restriction of 500 persons.

The limit on the number of visitors will no longer depend on the size of the premises. Event organizers and service providers will be required to develop a Covid-19 containment plan – this applies to both indoor and outdoor events.[1] The government has further supplemented the regulations, stipulating that educational institutions will be allowed to hire a registered medical practitioner for identifying any infection cases and for promptly preventing further spread of the infection in the educational institutions. The risk of infection abroad is significantly higher than in Latvia. In Europe, the incidence of Covid-19 has increased by about 19% in recent weeks, while in Latvia at least three in five cases is due to being abroad.

Drones will be used to monitor the borders among the Baltic States

The Cabinet of Ministers approved amendments to the “Regulations on Technical Means Necessary for Border Inspection and Border Surveillance”, which means that State Border Guard officials will be able to use unmanned aerial vehicles (drones) in carrying out border surveillance in the future. Currently, border guards have used helicopters as the only type of aircraft, which serves as an effective tool to prevent illegal migration, illegal movement of excisable goods and other threats to the security of the state border. However, there are some disadvantages – the relatively high cost of operating helicopters, the dependence on meteorological conditions and the limited flight times, which can be avoided by the use of drones in border surveillance.

The Cabinet of Ministers adopted the new National Civil Defence Plan

The Cabinet of Ministers reviewed the state civil protection plan prepared by the Ministry of the Interior, which was developed by the State Fire and Rescue Service of Latvia (SFRS) in co-operation with other institutions. The National Civil Protection Plan is a planning document that is prepared considering the risk assessment carried out by the ministries, institutions and municipalities. [2]  Furthermore, the aim of the plan is to continue working on practical solutions to streamline civil protection and strengthen the State Fire and Rescue Service. The Latvian Minister of Interior has emphasized that the security and well-being of the society is a priority in the adaption of the next budget. The main task of this system is to ensure the safety of people, the environment and property by preventing potential threats and aiding victims in case of any kind of.

Extraordinary Elections to the Riga City Council – record low voter turnout

On August 29, the extraordinary elections of Riga City Council took place in Riga, where 15 political forces took part. In the three previous voting days and election day, a total of 171,591 voters or 40.6% of the eligible voters, participated in the election. This is the lowest voter turnout in the municipal elections in Riga since 1997. Comparing the turnout in the three municipal elections, this time more voters participated in the previous poll. However, according to the President of Latvia, this time the people who would have been hooked by loud slogans and populist promises skipped elections, adding that only the ‘’motivated voters’’ decided to participate, which is reflected in results. [3] According to provisional results, victory was held by the joint list of Development/For! and Progressive party, which together received 18 out of 60 seats in Riga City Council. Harmony is second with 12 seats, followed by New Unity with 10 seats. Seven deputies from the National Alliance and Latvian Association of Regions, as well as four deputies each from Latvian Russians Union and the New Conservative Party were elected.

Furthermore, The President of Latvia has said that the results are solid and satisfactory, however, parties should work on motivating the society to participate in elections. Covid-19 may be one of the reasons why the activity was so low, however, there definitely are other aspects that parties should analyse regarding the voting activity in the elections. In order to achieve efficient and successful work of Riga City Council, deputies should demonstrate self-discipline and switch ‘’from competition model to cooperation regime’’. [4] The president believes the new team in Riga City Council and potential coalition politicians have a vision for Riga’s development, which is why he puts a great deal of faith in them.

The new mayor of Riga

After the elections, the political forces of the newly elected Riga City Council have started negotiations on the formation of a coalition. “New Unity’’ and the New Conservative Party have expressed support for Martins Stakis, the leader of the winning list “Development” “/ For!” – “Progressive” (AP / P), to the position of the Mayor of Riga. In the election, Stakis received the most pros – 24,661, becoming a clear candidate for the Mayor position. The new Mayor has offered the partners of the potential coalition to divide the positions of the heads of the council committees according to the principle of proportionality – larger factions would have more positions. [5] Furthermore, no objections have been raised from potential partners to his candidacy.

Conclusions

Latvia continues to focus on the Covid-19 crisis, developing new guidelines in a number of areas and monitoring the current situation. September has been an important month for the Government of Latvia to reduce and change a number of restrictions. Although the number of Covid-19 cases has increased in recent days, Latvia continues to show relatively successful results comparing to other countries. Cabinet of Ministers have approved that from now, drones will be used to monitor the borders among the Baltic States. An important step in Latvia’s defence has been the adoption of the new National Civil Defence Plan by The Cabinet of Ministers, which will streamline civil protection and strengthen the State Fire and Rescue Service

Analysing the results of the Extraordinary elections of the Riga City Council, it is clear that voting activity was low comparing to previous elections. Turnout was the lowest recorded since 1997 at just 40%, with perhaps coronavirus fears and bad weather contributing to people’s reluctance to go to the polls. The leading party Development/For!/Progressives leader Martins Stakis has entered into coalition negotiations with representatives of New Unity, the National Alliance and the Latvian Association of Regions, as well as the New Conservative Party, and became the new Mayor of Riga. Despite the fact that voting activity was low, there is a generational change in Riga City Council.

[1] Mk.gov.lv, Cabinet of Ministers: the involvement of every member of society is of great importance in limiting the spread of COVID-19https://www.mk.gov.lv/lv/aktualitates/ministru-kabinets-ir-svariga-katra-sabiedribas-locekla-iesaiste-covid-19-izplatibas

[2] The Cabinet of Ministers adopted the new National Civil Defense Plan https://mk.gov.lv/lv/aktualitates/ministru-kabinets-pienem-jauno-valsts-civilas-aizsardzibas-planu

[3] Levits: results of Riga City Council elections are solid and satisfactoryhttps://bnn-news.com/levits-results-of-riga-city-council-elections-are-solid-and-satisfactory-216587

[4] Levits: results of Riga City Council elections are solid and satisfactoryhttps://bnn-news.com/levits-results-of-riga-city-council-elections-are-solid-and-satisfactory-216587

[5] “New Unity” and JKP support the promotion of Staķis to the position of the mayor of Riga https://www.lsm.lv/raksts/zinas/latvija/jauna-vienotiba-un-jkp-atbalsta-staka-virzisanu-rigas-mera-amatam.a372509/

*This article has been made in cooperation with China-CEE institute and is the intellectual property of China-CEE institute

Latvia social briefing: Strengthening the independence and capacity of public media in Latvia

Original publication available at the China-CEE Institute website

Introduction

In October Latvian Parliament supported the draft law on public electronic media (public media) and their management to ensure efficient and transparent management, independence and responsibility of public media before society, as well as promotion of quality work. The discussion went on how to strengthen the independence of the media in Latvia and not allow political appointments of editors-in-chief for public media. Doubts were expressed that Public Electronic Mass Media Council[1] (new supervising authority for public electronic mass media which will complement existing national supervisor – National Electronic Mass Media Council[2]) may not be enough to cope with all the tasks, and there is a question of the Council’s independence, as its three board members will be appointed by President, Parliament and Council for Implementation of the Cooperation Memorandum between Non-governmental Organizations and the Cabinet of Ministers accordingly.

However, the Human Rights and Public Affairs Committee of the Parliament, who is responsible of foundation of new Public Electronic Mass Media Council, explained that one should trust the Council, which will approve the editor of electronic media. The task of the editor would be to monitor the implementation of the social media guidelines developed by the Council. The editor monitors the implementation of the guidelines not from the side-lines, but together with the Board, and if necessary tells the Board that we need to talk about this and that, and “the Board opens the wallet and looks at the possibilities and implements the guidelines”, the Committee explained. It is expected that Latvian media will be strengthened by this decision.

Public Media Law has been finalizing – one more step towards foundation of Public Electronic Mass Media Council

On 20 October 2020, the Human Rights and Public Affairs Committee of the Parliament supported in the third reading the legislative draft “On Public Electronic Mass Media and Their Management”[3]. Its goal is ensuring efficient and transparent management, independence and responsibility before society, as well as promotion of quality work in public media. “The legislative draft is large and vitally important for Latvia’s public media sector. It will form a new framework for public media. Finally, the functions of the Public Electronic Mass Media Council will be divided. This will ensure the Council is not simultaneously responsible for both monetary and supervisory topics” the Committee’s chairman Artuss Kaimiņš previously said. It is intended that the new law will outline the strategic goal of public electronic mass media, their legal status, operations, financing, management and monitoring principles.

The legislative draft states that public electronic mass media are capital associations in which all capital shares are owned by the state. The newly-founded the Public Electronic Mass Media Council (PEMMC) will be the holder of state capital shares in public media.

PEMMC will consist of three members. One will be picked by the State President, one – by the Parliament, and the last one – by the Council for Implementation of the Cooperation Memorandum between Non-governmental Organizations and the Cabinet of Ministers. The legislative draft details multiple requirements a person needs to meet in order to become eligible for a post there. For example, candidates are not allowed to be members of political parties or associations of political parties. Editorial policy formation will be the responsibility of the editor in chief of public media. It is also possible that PEMMC members may be allowed to be elected for repeated terms, but no more than twice in a row. In turn, the members of the council will be elected from among themselves for one year.

Thus, it is expected that the PEMMC will be independent, and it will be an opportunity to form a professional team, and members of the Council’s board will not be allowed to use their authority to directly or indirectly influence editorial decisions of public media.

The legislative draft submitted in October states that state budget grants for implementation of public orders will not be allowed to be lower than their value of the previous year. It will be prohibited to post all kinds of commercial announcements anywhere in the programmes presented by public media, including the internet.

The new draft law also provides for the establishment of a public electronic media ombudsman. It is planned that it will monitor the compliance of the services provided by public electronic media with the purpose and basic principles set out in the draft law, as well as the codes of ethics and editorial guidelines for public media. It is also envisaged that the Ombudsman will have the right to address the Parliament with a reasoned submission, urging the removal of a PEMMC member or the entire Council, if the ombudsman has established that the Council member’s actions or omissions pose a threat to the editorial independence of public media.

Public media will receive an additional 10 to 12 million euros for public media over five years

In October the Human Rights and Public Affairs Committee of the Parliament decided that the future PEMMC will have to submit a concept on a public electronic media funding model, which would envisage, among other things, reaching the European average funding level within five years. This would mean an increase in funds for public media from 36 million to 48 million euros, which would be an additional 12 million euros.

The Human Rights and Public Affairs Committee supported the law stipulating that the concept of PEMMC would have to be submitted to the Committee within six months of the establishment of PEMMC. The document will need to provide a funding model that will provide independent, adequate and predictable funding for public service media. PEMMC will also have to develop another concept from six months after its creation: the creation and operation of a unified public electronic media.

In Latvian Television programs, at least 10% of the broadcast time will have to be provided for audio-visual works by Latvian independent producers

The Human Rights and Public Affairs Committee of the Parliament decided that in Latvian Television programs, at least 10% of broadcasting time will have to be provided for audiovisual works made by Latvian independent producers. Independent producers had initially suggested 15% instead of the above 10%, explaining that the proportion should be set so that the independent production industry has a clearly defined place and perspective for working with the public media.

Representatives of the industry pointed out that independent producers have formed an important part of Latvia’s electronic media culture and social memory since the 1990s and are “the history of Latvian culture and recent times, without which a high – quality Latvian – language media environment is unthinkable”, is claimed in the letter from the independent producers to the Committee.

Additional 30 000 euros are granted to Latvian public media with regard to Covid-19

On Tuesday, 20 October, the Government decided to allocate 30 930 euros to the National Electronic Mass Media Council (NEMMC) from contingency fund. It is planned that additional funding will cover the costs of creating and distributing additional content related to Covid-19, as well as the costs of epidemiological safety measures in the Republic of Latvia, which are necessary to reduce the risk of employees and interviewees becoming infected with Covid-19.

The recent informative report prepared by the Ministry of Culture on the impact of the Covid-19 emergency on the financial capacity of public media to ensure the fulfilment of the public order has indicated that the Latvian Radio needs an additional 17 098 euros, which after 20 October decision will be transferred to cover the costs of creating and distributing additional content related to Covid-19.

Summary

In October Latvian government and Parliament was occupied with public media support issues. First, legislative draft “On Public Electronic Mass Media and Their Management” (Public Media Law) was submitted for third reading by the Human Rights and Public Affairs Committee of the Parliament. Public Electronic Mass Media Council (PEMMC) operation conditions and management rules were developed, as well as procedure for appointment of Board members. PEMMC will have to submit a concept on a public electronic media funding model, which would envisage, among other things, reaching the European average funding level within five years. PEMMC will also have to develop another concept from six months after its creation: the creation and operation of a unified public electronic media.

Also, the Parliament of Latvia supported decision to provide more broadcasting time on Latvian television to independent producers.

In October there is also additional funding granted to Latvian mass media (Latvian Radio and Latvian Television) to cope with Covid-19 crisis consequences and produce new content related to informing population about Covid-19 safety measures.

[1] Public Electronic Mass Media Council (PEMMC) – a newly-founded independent supervising authority & holder of state capital shares in public media in Latvia that, in accordance with its competence, will represent the public interest in the field of public electronic media.

[2] National Electronic Mass Media Council (NEMMC) – the current Latvian independent, autonomous institution that represents the public interest in the field of electronic mass media. The Council supervises the compliance of the operations of electronic mass media with the Constitution of the Republic of Latvia, Electronic mass media law and other relevant legislation.

[3] https://balticnewsdesk.com/baltic-news-network-news-from-latvia-lithuania-estonia-one-more-step-made-on-the-path-towards-foundation-of-seplp/

*This article has been made in cooperation with China-CEE institute and is the intellectual property of China-CEE institute

Latvia external relations briefing: Latvia facilitates foreign policy cooperation with EU, Canada and Central Asia under COVID-19 second wave

Original publication available at the China-CEE Institute website

Introduction

In October, Latvia is facing increase in COVID-19 cases and biggest total daily number since its first wave. New COVID-19 restrictions are in place for travel and public places. External relations of Latvia in October were evolving around cooperation with its external partners to mitigate consequences of pandemic both by Latvia providing expertise and sharing the best practice, and learning from its allies and partners.

From now on travelers to Latvia must complete an electronic questionnaire

As of 12 October, all travelers to Latvia must complete an electronic questionnaire on the website covidpass.lv [1]. Latvia imposed stricter restrictions in October regarding travelling abroad. It is not recommended to travel to or from countries with more than 61,9 new cases of Covid-19 per 100000 inhabitants over the course of the last two weeks. However, for the persons who travelled anyway, 10-day self-isolation must be observed after arriving in Latvia from those countries. Consequently, it is now possible to enter Latvia from countries with a lower infection rate than Latvia without the need for 10 days of self-isolation. The European countries that qualify for this are Greece, Norway, Estonia, Finland and Cyprus.

Citizens entering the Republic of Latvia up till 11 October at 23:59 had to fill in paper questionnaires, but as of 12 October, all persons crossing the border of the Republic of Latvia are required to fill in an electronic questionnaire on the covidpass.lv website. Completion of the contact information form is mandatory for all travelers, and it must be completed no earlier than 48 hours before crossing the Latvian border. After filling in the form certifying their contact information, the traveler will receive a QR code which is assigned to them personally and which also confirms that the information they submitted was received. The code is required for the transportation service providers, the State Health Inspectorate, the State Police, the Municipal Police, and the border guards to ascertain that the health safety restrictions are being observed. Registration with covidpass.lv is also compulsory if the person is crossing Latvia in transit.

Foreign Minister supports a coordinated approach and criteria in EU Member States’ response to the COVID-19 pandemic

On 13 October 2020, the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Latvia, Edgars Rinkēvičs, took part in the meeting of the European Union General Affairs Council in Luxembourg. EU Foreign Ministers discussed and adopted a recommendation to promote a coordinated approach by EU Member States as well as criteria in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Latvia highly supports the need for greater and closer coordination between EU Member States concerning national measures taken to curb the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic. By setting out common thresholds for the spread of the disease and criteria for travel restrictions, the recommendations will help avoid fragmentation and promote transparency and predictability for persons and businesses. At the meeting, the Commission presented its First Annual Report on the Rule of Law situation across the European Union, with a positive rating of Latvia’s efforts and achievements with regard to the fight with pandemic.

In a discussion on the EU’s external policy, the parties shared the view that the COVID-19 pandemic has also affected the EU agenda, and that Germany, upon assuming the Presidency of the Council of the EU, was confronted with a number of serious challenges. Some of them are produced by the socio-economic impact of the coronavirus pandemic across the EU, including to the good functioning of the single market and the euro area. This has led to a growing consensus on the need for a common recovery plan complementing national stimulus package. [2]

Therefore, Latvia and participants welcomed the agreement between the EU’s heads of state and government on the EU Multiannual Financial Framework and the European Union Recovery Instrument. The European Commission has put forward a proposal to establish a €750 billion European Union recovery instrument, Next Generation EU (NGEU), on top of a revised 2021-2027 MFF worth €1.1 trillion. The financing of the instrument would come from funds borrowed on the markets by the Commission on behalf of the EU, while a mix of new and already planned instruments under the EU budget would channel expenditure, combining grants (€500 billion) and loans (€250 billion). [3]

Latvia stresses the importance of transatlantic partnership in addressing COVID-19 crisis

The crisis triggered by the COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the importance of the transatlantic partnership. In October, the Foreign Minister of Latvia, Edgars Rinkēvičs, underlined the vital importance of transatlantic unity and partnership for fight the COVID-19 crisis and pandemic consequences. [4]

The Latvian Foreign Minister noted that in particularly Canada is an important strategic partner to Latvia and the EU. Latvia encourages cooperation between Canada and Latvia, and also EU to Cooperation of the EU and Canada and joint acting can demonstrate to the rest of the world that democratic societies can recover from the pandemic in the most effective way and return most rapidly to economic growth. Europe, Canada and the United States of America are united by shared strategic goals, which include transatlantic security, and can jointly fight with the negative consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Latvia is sharing the experience in digitalization of education with Central Asian countries to fight COVID-19 consequences

In Latvia, the digitalization of education has been one of the current issues on the agenda for several years, while the Covid-19 crisis especially emphasized the importance of digitization and innovation in ensuring a continuous and high-quality educational process. At the moment restrictions are put in force, that from 26 October to 30 October education for years 7-12 must be organized remotely.

The Ministry of Education and Science has organized the online conference “Promoting cooperation and exchange of experience between Europe and Central Asian countries on education digitalization issues” on 14-15 October. [5] The Parliamentary Secretary of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Zanda Kalniņa-Lukaševica, took part in a conference; among other participants of the conference were EU Special Representative for Central Asia Peter Burian, as well as representatives from Lithuania, Estonia, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan, and the European Commission. The webinar was implemented with funding granted by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in accordance with Latvia’s Development Cooperation Policy Plan for 2020 and its chapter, “The EU-Central Asia cooperation on education, including implementation of activities under the Central Asia Education Platform Project”.

The conference aimed to address challenges posed by the COVID-19 pandemic to national educational systems and to discuss experience with the further digitalization of educational processes and opportunities for strengthening cooperation with the Central Asian countries.

The discussion has pointed on the national challenges and solutions available to mitigate the consequences of the Covid-19 pandemic, the role of digital transformation in education. At this point in time, when the world is facing challenges caused by COVID-19, Latvia’s priority is to ensure the accessibility of education. Digital tools make this possible, and Latvia has experience to share in the introduction of a number of different solutions to its Central Asia partners.

Summary

To sum up, external relations of Latvia in October were aimed at addressing of COVID-19 negative consequences. The Foreign Minister of Latvia participated in various meetings with its cooperation partners to develop common mitigation measures. Latvia strongly supports coordinated approach of EU in response to the coronavirus crisis to help to avoid fragmentation and promote transparency and predictability for persons and businesses.

Latvia is also looking forward stronger cooperation with its transatlantic partners, such as Canada, and encourage to stimulate joint action for faster recovery from pandemic negative impact.

In October Latvian Ministry of Foreign Affairs also underlined Latvia’s readiness to further strengthen cooperation with Central Asian countries in sharing reform experience in education digitalization and held an online conference together with EU Special Representative for Central Asia and representatives of different countries. During the conference, the participants emphasized that in the current situation, the exchange of experiences on the digitalization of education between countries and regions is particularly important in helping to tackle challenges posed by COVID-19 and find more effective solutions to ensure the quality and accessibility of education for all.

References

[1] Covidpass.lv https://covidpass.lv/en/

[2] Website of Ministry of Foreign Affairs. https://www.mfa.gov.lv/en/news/latest-news/66728-the-state-secretary-discusses-the-eu-security-and-foreign-policy-issues-with-his-baltic-and-german-colleagues-in-riga

[3] European Union Recovery Instrument. https://www.europarl.europa.eu/legislative-train/theme-budgets-budg/file-european-union-recovery-instrument

[4] Website of Ministry of Foreign Affairs. https://www.mfa.gov.lv/en/news/latest-news/66791-at-the-meeting-of-the-baltic-and-canadian-foreign-ministers-edgars-rinkevics-underlines-the-importance-of-transatlantic-partnership-for-european-and-global-security

[5] Website of Ministry of Foreign Affairs. https://www.mfa.gov.lv/en/news/latest-news/66766-foreign-ministry-s-parliamentary-secretary-underlines-latvia-s-readiness-to-further-strengthen-cooperation-with-central-asian-countries-in-sharing-reform-experience

*This article has been made in cooperation with China-CEE institute and is the intellectual property of China-CEE institute

Latvia economy briefing: The cadastral value of property in Latvia could double

Original publication available at the China-CEE Institute website

Introduction

The Ministry of Justice and the State Land Service have developed and submitted for public discussion the new Draft Law for changing the methodology of evaluating the cadastral value of real estate properties. The planned changes are expected to increase the cadastral value for many properties and could enter into force on 1 January 2022. The calculation shows that the cadastral value of properties in Latvia could double, thus increasing the government income from Real Estate Tax. This has led to broad public discussion since the expenditure on property tax of especially businesses is expected to significantly rise. The total tax income from commercial objects would thus increase by 120% or 54 million euros, but for production objects by 50% or 11 million euros.[1]

The new changes in the cadastral values of properties in Latvia.

Cadastral values are used to calculate 16 different taxes, fees and charges, therefore it is important that they are calculated fairly and according to the same principles for everyone. Unfortunately, the current cadastral evaluation methodology opened wide possibilities for tax optimization and determined that, for example, for new projects the coherence of cadastral values to their actual value is lower than for older projects.[2] In monetary terms, this meant that, for example, Real Estate Tax on a supermarket built after 2000 was paid from a proportionately smaller share than on a building constructed during the Soviet times. Because of that the government of Latvia has developed a draft Law for changing the methodology for determining the cadastral value of buildings. As for the main criterion for changes in cadastral value have been taken building depreciation, materials, and construction period. In order to determine the value of the real estate properties, the location of the property and changes in the environment around the property have been considered – how the environment has developed or, on the contrary, degraded, and infrastructure – new roads, public infrastructure, etc.

The cadastral value of agricultural land is expected to increase throughout the country due to the increase in market prices. The value of agricultural buildings will practically remain the same or even experience decrement due to the recalculation of depreciation. Cadastral value will increase for apartments in new project buildings constructed after 2000, as well as for standard-type apartments in buildings built before 2000 in strategic development regions. In turn, the detached houses built before 2000 in areas where there is no market price increase will experience fall of the cadastral worth. However, the value of production objects will experience an increase, as well as new production buildings and commercial objects built after the Year of 2000.

Overall, the cadastral value of commercial objects is expected to increase for new project buildings built after 2000 in cities of national importance and  in territories where the real estate market has expanded, but reductions of the cadastral value are expected in older buildings built before 2000, in areas where there has not been an increase in market prices.

Tax reduction for primary house owners

As the cadastral value is also the basis for the calculation of Real Estate Tax, the Ministry of Justice already a year ago prepared amendments to the State Real Estate Cadastre Law and amendments to the Law on Real Estate Tax, which provide for the abolition of Real Estate Tax for primary housing up to 100,000 euros. The Law envisaged that for the primary housing up to 100,000 Euros the real estate tax payment would be free of charge. [3] This would mean that for a primary real estate property with a cadastral value, for example, 80,000 euros, the real estate tax payment would be 0 euros, but for a dwelling with a cadastral value of 120,000 euros, the real estate tax would be calculated from the value of 20,000 Euros.

It is already clear that it will be difficult to pass this Law since some coalition partners are criticizing the proposal emphasizing that this will mean a greater financial burden on entrepreneurs. As for example for some industrial parks, buildings, hotels and others Real Estate Tax payment could triple thus limiting the company’s free funds for investing in development of their own enterprises.

Is the increase of cadastral value valid and functional in today’s Latvia’s conditions?

The new approach for determining cadastral value has led to broad discussions in the society. It is envisaged that the cadastral value of properties will experience rise by more than 2 times on average. [4]Thus, according to the calculations of the enterprises themselves, the Real Estate Tax payment for commercial properties and production premises may increase 3-5 times. Therefore, the rearrange and increase of the cadastral value has been criticized by experts as it has many flaws and will impact the available financial resources of both households and businesses of Latvia.

Additional incomprehension has been caused by the timing of changing the cadastral value as currently due to the consequences of Covid-19 Latvia is facing economic recession. While entrepreneurs surviving the COVID-19 crisis are looking for solutions to address the financial consequences of the pandemic, the state is providing the next “support tool” for entrepreneurs – an increase in the cadastral value of commercial and industrial premises and an increase of Real Estate Tax by up to 300-500%. This means that even bigger burden is being put on the commercial sector ignoring the challenges that are currently being faced in regards to business sustainment.

The Minister of Economics Janis Vitenbergs noted that the real estate tax must not become an additional burden on businesses, especially as the crisis caused by the Covid-19 virus has reduced business revenues. Imposing an additional tax burden on businesses will directly reduce both the number of jobs and the remuneration of employees.  For businesses currently struggling with significant losses as a result of the Covid-19 crisis, the new Real Estate Tax rules will cause additional financial restrictions. Consequently, prices will rise, exporters will lose international competitiveness, leading to redundancies, rising unemployment, increasing rent payments, and decreasing real estate investment and other investment projects.[5] The Minister of Economics of Latvia has additionally noted that Real Estate Tax rates must be predictable. When planning changes, it is necessary to consider the purpose of the Real Estate Tax and how these changes will affect real estate prices in the future, the availability of housing in general, investments in the real estate market, as well as Latvia’s competitiveness in comparison with neighbouring countries.

Current estimates already suggest that changes in Real Estate Tax are disproportionate to our neighbouring countries. Riga lags far behind Vilnius and Tallinn in the construction of new apartments and office buildings, which also reduces the inflow of investments into the country and the creation of new jobs. [6] In Latvia, the Real Estate Tax is significantly higher than in Lithuania and Estonia.[7] By raising it even more, Latvia will become increasingly uncompetitive on a Baltic scale, as a result of which foreign investors will prefer Vilnius and Tallinn even more for their investment projects.

Furthermore, the Ministry of Economics predicts that the recovery from the Covid-19 virus pandemic will take about two years, so no tax increasement cannot be faced in order to facilitate the economic recovery during this period. According to forecasts, the Real Estate Tax payment for offices, factories, logistics centers, hotels and other commercial facilities will increase on average three times.

Summary

Currently the new Draft Law for changing the methodology of evaluating the cadastral value of real estate properties has promoted a broad public discussion as it is seen that total tax for commercial objects would thus increase by 120% or 54 million euros, but for production objects by 50% or 11 million euros. Overall, the cadastral value of commercial objects is expected to increase for buildings built after 2000 in cities of national importance, in territories where the real estate market has expanded, but reductions of the cadastral value are expected in older buildings built before 2000, in areas where there has not been an increase in market prices. The new principle of evaluating the cadastral value of real estate properties is seen to be beneficial for primary dwelling owners, thus putting more financial pressure on enterprises in Latvia. This has caused incomprehension as Latvia is facing economic recession due to Covid-19 crisis and increasing the cadastral value of properties, thus raising the Real Estate Tax will cause an even bigger financial limitations as currently the enterprises of Latvia are focused on the financial sustainment due to the pandemic crisis. The current cadastral evaluation methodology opens wide possibilities for tax optimization and determined that, for example, for new projects the coherence of cadastral values to their actual value is lower than for older projects. However, there is a need to evaluate long-term impacts on raising the cadastral value of real estate properties in Latvia as there stands a risk that with the implementation of new cadastral values Latvia could lose its competitiveness on a Baltic scale.

[1] https://www.lsm.lv/raksts/zinas/latvija/politiki-sapinusies-jauna-nekustama-ipasuma-nodokla-meklejumos.a370701/

[2] https://lvportals.lv/norises/318193-jaunas-kadastralas-vertibas-un-piedavata-nekustama-ipasuma-nodokla-reforma-2020

[3]https://lvportals.lv/norises/318193-jaunas-kadastralas-vertibas-un-piedavata-nekustama-ipasuma-nodokla-reforma-2020

[4] Dārziņa, L. Cadastral value will be determined by new method. Available – https://lvportals.lv

[5] https://www.em.gov.lv/lv/jaunumi/28648-vitenbergs-nekustama-ipasuma-nodoklis-nedrikst-klut-par-papildu-slogu-uznemejiem

[6] https://www.em.gov.lv/lv/jaunumi/28648-vitenbergs-nekustama-ipasuma-nodoklis-nedrikst-klut-par-papildu-slogu-uznemejiem

[7] https://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/show.do?query=BOOKMARK_DS-471199_QID_-544AFF50_UID_-3F171EB0&layout=TIME,C,X,0;GEO,L,Y,0;NA_ITEM,L,Y,1;SECTOR,L,Z,0;UNIT,L,Z,1;INDICATORS,C,Z,2;&zSelection=DS-471199UNIT,MIO_EUR;DS-471199INDICATORS,OBS_FLAG;DS-471199SECTOR,S13_S212;&rankName1=SECTOR_1_2_-1_2&rankName2=INDICATORS_1_2_-1_2&rankName3=UNIT_1_2_0_0&rankName4=TIME_1_0_0_0&rankName5=GEO_1_0_0_1&rankName6=NA-ITEM_1_2_1_1&sortR=ASC_13&sortC=ASC_-1_FIRST&rStp=&cStp=&rDCh=&cDCh=&rDM=true&cDM=true&footnes=false&empty=false&wai=false&time_mode=NONE&time_most_recent=false&lang=EN&cfo=%23%23%23%2C%23%23%23.%23%23%23

*This article has been made in cooperation with China-CEE institute and is the intellectual property of China-CEE institute

Latvia political briefing: state budget 2021, main priority of domestic politics in October

Original publication available at the China-CEE Institute website

Introduction

On October 14, 2020, the Minister of Finance submitted a budget draft to the Saeima, Parliament of the Republic of Latvia. In total, there are budget-related amendments to 28 laws, which related to both the tax increase block and the welfare enhancement block.

The priorities of the 2021 budget are socially oriented, with the potential to fiscally stimulate aggregate domestic demand, improve the capacity of the health care system and reduce social inequalities, without compromising the country’s fiscal sustainability.

Back in 2019, the Council of Europe recommended Latvia to take measures and amendments to regulatory enactments to prevent social exclusion, in particular by improving the adequacy of the minimum income benefit, the minimum old-age pension and income support for people with disabilities.

Amendments to the laws of Welfare enhancement and Social block are related to both the recommendations of the Council of Europe and the judgments of the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Latvia[1] [2][3],, noting that the state has identified that its established social assistance system does not provide social opportunities to meet the basic needs of the population. Amendments in the social field at a minimum level require that the state creates an opportunity for every person who is unable to acquire sufficient resources on his or her own, for them to be able to integrate into the society of a modern democratic state governed by the rule of law.

Budget division

Next year, consolidated budget revenue is projected at 9.58 billion EUR (31.9% of GDP) and expenditure at 10.76 billion EUR (35.8% of GDP). The basic budget revenue is estimated at 6.68 billion EUR and expenditure at 7.84 billion EUR. In the special budget, revenues are planned at 3.15 billion EUR, and expenditures – 3.17 billion EUR.

Revenue is projected to fall by 328 million EUR next year and expenditure by 744 million EUR, while the budget deficit is projected at 1.2 billion EUR, or 3.9% of GDP.

In the healthcare sector, an additional 183 million EUR is foreseen next year, which will be allocated to the previously planned increase in the salaries of healthcare workers.

The salary increase is also planned for teachers, and next year it is planned to allocate an additional 33.3 million EUR, but in 2022 and in the following years – 49.1 million EUR.

In the area of welfare, additional funding of 95.7 million EUR is planned for a guaranteed minimum income for the poor and low-income (needy) people. 70.7 million EUR is planned to increase the minimum pension and state social security benefit, 23.8 million EUR in local government budget is planned to finance the guaranteed minimum income and housing benefit, while 1.3 million EUR is planned to increase social guarantees for orphans and children left without parental care.

10.5 million EUR next year is intended for strengthening the activities of the Ombudsman’s Office, judicial system institutions, the State Audit Office, the Constitutional Court and other independent institutions. 8.91 million EUR is earmarked for the exit of public service media from the advertising market and the implementation of public procurement in commercial electronic media.

From next year, the minimum wage, which is currently 430 euros, is planned to be raised to 500 euros per month. It is planned to increase the threshold up to which the differentiated personal non-taxable income minimum is applied – to EUR 1,800 instead of the current EUR 1,200. In turn, the maximum non-taxable minimum is planned to be increased from the current 250 euros to 300 euros per month next year. It is planned to increase the non-taxable minimum for the retired from the current 300 to 330 euros.

It is planned to set the highest progressive personal income tax rate at 31% instead of the current amount of 31.4%.

Until the end of 2023, it is planned to maintain the reduced rate of value added tax (VAT) in the amount of 5% for Latvian fruits, berries and vegetables.

Excise duty rate for tobacco products is set to increase by 5% each year over the next three years, and will also be levied on liquids used in electronic cigarettes. A mandatory deposit system has been introduced in accordance with the Packaging Law for reusable and single-use packaging.

The pandemic crisis has highlighted the need to strengthen social protection for workers in alternative tax regimes. Thus, it is planned that from July next year these employees will have to pay mandatory social contributions. It is planned to maintain the current patent fee regime only for pensioners and persons with 1st and 2nd disability groups.

From 2021, it is planned to reduce the rate of mandatory state social insurance contributions by one percentage point – from 35.9% to 34.09%. The social tax will be 10.5% for employees and 23.59% for employers.

From 2021, it is planned to gradually limit the micro-enterprise tax regime, providing that: the micro-enterprise tax may be applied only to one person – the owner of the micro-enterprise; the tax rate for turnover up to 25,000 euros per year is 25 percent, but for turnover part which excess 25,000 euros per year – 40 percent; the VAT tax payer will not be able to become a micro-enterprise taxpayer, while by becoming a VAT payer, the person will lose the right to apply for the micro-enterprise tax payer status next year. From 1 January 2021, limited liability companies (LLCs) will no longer be able to acquire the status of micro-enterprise tax payer, but as of 1 January 2022, LLCs already registered as micro-enterprise tax payers will no longer be able to be micro-enterprise tax payers.

It is also planned to increase the tax on natural resources for certain facilities, including the disposal of municipal solid waste and hazardous waste in landfills.

The exemption from the tax on natural resources for CO2 emissions is abolished when peat is used in technological installations.

Unfair proportion of the tax payment is for the disposal of municipal waste and for the disposal of hazardous waste between the state budget and the local government budget. At present, it is 60% in the state budget and 40% in the local government budget. The planned changes determine that natural resource tax payments for municipal waste disposal are included in the following proportions: in 2021, 100% – in the state basic budget; In 2022, 90% – in the state basic budget and 10% – in the basic budget of the local government in the territory of which the waste is disposed of; from 2023, 85% – in the state basic budget and 15% – in the basic budget of the local government in the territory of which the waste is disposed. In turn, natural resource tax payments rates for hazardous waste disposal are included: 80% – in the state basic budget; 20% – in the basic budget of the local government in the territory of which the waste is disposed of.

The changes will also affect the transportation sector, and it is planned to increase the toll for heavy trucks, increase the rate for businesses for the use of powerful cars, and balance the tax rates for cars and trucks with a gross vehicle weight of up to 3,500 kg.

It is also planned to change the distribution of personal income tax – in the state budget by 25% (currently 20%), in the local government budget – by 75% (currently 80%), providing that approximately 90 million EUR will be taken from local governments.

Reaction of society at 2021 state budget draft

The Parliament’s Budget and Finance (Tax) Commission has received more than 500 proposals from various institutions and individuals for the second reading of the draft state budget for 2021, of the draft law on the medium-term budget framework for 2021, 2022 and 2023 and the accompanying draft laws. Several entities have exercised their right to submit proposals provided in the Parliament Rules of Procedure:  the Parliament political party factions, as well as parliament commissions, individual MPs and also field ministries[4].

The submitted proposals concern such issues as not reducing the share of local governments in the state budget in 2021 from the funds received in the personal income tax, maintaining it at the current level; encouraging a reduction in VAT from 21% to 18%; increase funding for social needs and teacher support; further raising the non-taxable minimum threshold for pensioners; the provision of unemployment benefits for a longer period than before; increase state benefits for families with children; to preserve the amount of funding for the sacred heritage; increase the healthcare budget to ensure the reduction of the queues for medical services and to expand the availability of reimbursable medicines, etc.

The biggest discussions, while already negotiating the submitted proposals will take place on the regulation of royalty payments and the regime of micro-enterprises, as well as on the distribution of personal income tax and natural resources tax between the state budget and local government budgets.

Summary

The fiscal policy of the Latvia’s 2021 state budget is conservative, maintaining socially oriented priorities, with the potential to stimulate aggregate domestic demand, to improve the capacity of the health care system and to reduce social inequalities, responding flexibly to the economic conditions created by the pandemic without compromising the country’s fiscal sustainability.

In 2021, the revenue of the consolidated budget is planned to be lower than the expenditure (revenue – EUR 9.58 billion (31.9% of GDP)) and the expenditure – EUR 10.76 billion (35.8% of GDP). The increase in expenditure is estimated at EUR 744 million, while the budget deficit is estimated at EUR 1.2 billion, or 3.9% of GDP.

The biggest discussions and public dissatisfaction are about the changes in the regulation of royalties and the regime of micro-enterprises, as well as about the distribution of personal income tax and natural resources tax between the state budget and local government budgets.

[1] https://www.satv.tiesa.gov.lv/cases/?search%5Bnumber%5D=2019-25-03

[2] https://www.satv.tiesa.gov.lv/cases/?search%5Bnumber%5D=2019-24-03

[3] https://www.satv.tiesa.gov.lv/cases/?search%5Bnumber%5D=2019-27-03

[4] https://www.saeima.lv/lv/aktualitates/saeimas-zinas/29278-2021-gada-valsts-budzeta-projektam-sanemti-vairak-neka-500-priekslikumi

*This article has been made in cooperation with China-CEE institute and is the intellectual property of China-CEE institute